Exclusions to the R&D tax credit

Now that we have a framework for how to qualify projects as R&D, we should take some time to understand what does not qualify. The Internal Revenue Service specifically excludes eight activities from qualifying as R&D. These are: Think of your project on a timeline. Once the project reaches commercial production, and uncertainty is resolved, R&D is effectively complete. Any expense incurred afterwards will not count toward your R&D tax credit. For a manufacturer of widgets, the expenses that go into the design, modeling, and prototyping of the widget qualify. As do pilot and trial manufacturing runs. However, once the widget is ready for mass production, R&D stops. If quality decreases during production, the efforts in quality control to resolve … Read More

Using the Four-Part Test to Qualify R&D

Many tax advisors use a framework call the Four-Part Test to identify and qualify projects undertaken by your company in a given tax year. As long as your project passes all four parts, the project is considered R&D and is worth digging deeper into the activities that make up the project. Note that the project does not have to be a success nor does it have to be completed by year end in order to qualify. In the previous blog, we touched briefly described the Four-Part Test. To recap, the qualified research activity must (1) be towards the development of a new or improved business component, (2) eliminate uncertainty, (3) undergo a process of experimentation, and (4) be technical in … Read More

How the IRS defines and treats small businesses conducting R&D

The Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 (the PATH Act) was signed into law by Barack Obama on December 18th, 2015. This event marked a huge win for small businesses that perform R&D activities. Not only did the PATH Act make the R&D tax credit permanent, it also enhanced how small businesses can utilize their tax credits. There are two types of small businesses as defined by the IRS: Qualified Small Businesses and Eligible Small Businesses. A qualified small business (QSB) is an S or C corporation or partnership with (1) gross receipts* of less than $5 million for the taxable year and (2) did not have gross receipts in any tax year preceding the five-tax-year period that … Read More

What is the R&D Tax Credit?

The R&D tax credit is a general business tax credit under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) §41 for companies that incur research and development (R&D) costs in the United States. R&D clearly stands for research and development. However, the IRS’s definition of R&D may differ from what is usually considered R&D. According to IRC §41 (d), R&D has to pass a Four-Part Test. The qualified research activity must (1) be towards the development of a new or improved business component, (2) eliminate uncertainty, (3) undergo a process of experimentation, and (4) be technical in nature. We will dive deeper into the Four-Part Test in another blog. Ultimately, given the IRS’ broader definition of R&D, companies from a variety of industries qualify … Read More